Hindi Medium IAS Materials free download PDF. by Netaji IAS · 9th January CLICK ON THE IMAGE TO DOWNLOAD. Tags: downloads. Geography Notes in Hindi PDF: Today We Are Sharing Geography Notes in Hindi for Competitive Exams. These Study Notes are Useful for. इस पीडीऍफ़ मे भारत एवं विश्व भूगोल के topicwise handwritten notes हैं। जोकि gurukul hub के द्वारा लिखित हैं।.


Author: Miss Amely Daniel
Country: Poland
Language: English
Genre: Education
Published: 24 January 2014
Pages: 434
PDF File Size: 15.62 Mb
ePub File Size: 17.88 Mb
ISBN: 257-3-14645-747-3
Downloads: 50043
Price: Free
Uploader: Miss Amely Daniel


See Article History Alternative Titles: It is known from archaeological evidence that a highly sophisticated urbanized culture—the Indus civilization —dominated the northwestern part of the subcontinent from about to bce.

From that period on, India functioned as a virtually self-contained political and cultural arena, which gave rise to a distinctive tradition that was associated primarily with Hinduismthe roots of which can largely be traced to the Indus civilization. Other religions, notably Buddhism and Jainismoriginated in India—though their presence there is now quite small—and throughout the centuries residents of the subcontinent developed a rich intellectual life in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, architecture, literature, music, and the fine arts.

Throughout its history, India was intermittently disturbed by incursions from beyond its northern mountain wall. Especially important was the coming of Islambrought from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian, and other raiders beginning early in the 8th century ce.

Eventually, some of those raiders stayed; by the 13th century much of the subcontinent was geography of india pdf in hindi Muslim rule, and the number geography of india pdf in hindi Muslims steadily increased.

Only after the arrival of the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in and the subsequent establishment of European maritime supremacy in the region did India become exposed to major external influences arriving by sea, a process that culminated in the decline of the ruling Geography of india pdf in hindi elite and absorption of the subcontinent within the British Empire.

The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, one of the world's great architectural masterpieces.

Hindi Medium IAS Materials free download PDF – Netaji IAS

When British rule came to an end inthe subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into two separate countries—India, with a majority of Hindus, and Pakistanwith a majority of Muslims; the eastern portion of Pakistan later split off to geography of india pdf in hindi Bangladesh.

Many British institutions stayed in place such as the parliamentary system of government ; English continued to be a widely used lingua franca; and India remained within the Commonwealth.


Hindi became the official language and a number of other local languages achieved official statuswhile a vibrant English-language intelligentsia thrived.

India remains one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. Apart from its many religions and sects, India is home geography of india pdf in hindi innumerable castes and tribes, as well as to more than a dozen major and hundreds of minor linguistic groups from several language families unrelated to one another.

Religious minorities, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains, still account for a significant proportion of the population; collectively, their numbers exceed the populations of all countries except China.

Earnest attempts have been made to instill a spirit of nationhood in so varied a population, but tensions between neighbouring groups have remained and at times have resulted in outbreaks of violence.

Complete Geography Notes for SSC EXAM

At independence, India was blessed with several leaders of world stature, most notably Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehruwho were able to galvanize the masses at home geography of india pdf in hindi bring prestige to India abroad. The country has played an increasing role in global affairs.

It is bounded to the northwest by Pakistanto the north by NepalChinaand Bhutan ; and to the east by Myanmar Burma.


Bangladesh to the east is surrounded by India to the north, east, and west. The island country of Sri Lanka is situated some 40 miles 65 km off the southeast coast of India across the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar. In area, India ranks as the seventh largest country in the world.

India has two union territories composed entirely of islands: When the two finally collided approximately 50 million years agothe northern edge of the Indian-Australian Plate was thrust under the Eurasian Plate at a geography of india pdf in hindi angle.

The collision reduced the speed of the oncoming plate, but the underthrusting, or subduction, of the plate has continued into contemporary times.

The effects of the collision and continued subduction are numerous and extremely complicated. Geography of india pdf in hindi important consequence, however, was the slicing off of crustal rock from the top of the underthrusting plate.